(fluorescence-lifetime imaging microscopy)
The decay time of an excited fluorophore is typically in the range of a few nanoseconds. In fluorescence lifetime imaging the exponential decay of a sample is determined requiring a timing resolution in the picosecond regime.
also known as: LIDAR, LiDAR, and LADAR, "light detection and ranging", "laser imaging, detection, and ranging", "3-D laser scanning", "LIDAR mapping", "airborne laser scanning", ALS
LIDAR Systems emit ultraviolet, visible, or near-infrared light to image objects and measuring the time-of-flight (TOF) of reflected photons. Such systems are used for object detection and tracking in many different fields, ranging from archaeology to agriculture, autonomous vehicles and robots etc.
optical time-domain reflectometry, optical time-domain reflectometer, remote fiber testing
In optical time-domain reflectometry the time of the reflections is determined from the reflection loss by measuring from the same end of the fiber how much light returns via the Rayleigh backscatter or is being reflected from individual locations along the fiber.
see also: quantum metrology
Quantum sensing is an overall term that encompasses techniques and methods that use quantum mechanical phenomena to make precise measurements of physical quantities. Thereby, quantum mechanical states and effects are used to improve the measurement accuracy beyond the limits of classical sensors.
TOF mass spectrometry
TOF- & MASS- spectroscopy detectors, TOFMS
In many TOFMS units cronologic TDCs are used to measure precisely the arrival of single ions. From the arrival time, the ion’s time-of-flight is deduced, from which the mass-to-charge ratio of the detected particle can be determined.
Time Domain Reflectometry
TDR, distance-to-fault, DTF
TDR (Time Domain Reflectometry) is an electronic measurement method that measures reflections along a conductor. It belongs to the category of Distance-to-Fault (DTF) measurements. TDR measurements provide meaningful information about the broadband behavior of transmission systems.
Time-Correlated Single Photon Counting
TCSPC, photon counting, time-correlated single photon counting, detection of individual photons, single-photon detectors (SPD), photosensors
Whether in astrophysics, materials science, quantum information science, quantum encryption, medical imaging, DNA sequencing or in fiber-optic communication: Single-photon detectors (SPD) provide a timing signal from which, for example, fluorescence lifetimes of excited matter can be deduced.
fluorescence lifetime correlation spectroscopy
FLCS, FCS, fluorescence lifetime correlation spectroscopy
Fluorescence-correlation-spectroscopy is a highly sensitive optical measurement method. Fluctuations in the fluorescence emission intensity over time are recorded, which are caused by individual fluorophores that pass through the detection volume.
phase shift measurements
frequency and phase shift measurements, phase-noise-analyzers
In phase measurements the phase of an incident signal is compared to the phase of a device's response signal. With increasing frequency, such phase shift measurements become more challenging. cronologic TDCs provide many features which help to address this difficult task.
Quantum research affects many areas of modern science: quantum cryptography, quantum information science, quantum encryption, quantum key distribution (QKD), quantum electro dynamics (QED), quantum computing etc.
Quantum phenomena such as superposition, uncertainty, and entanglement are studied in quantum research with the goal that they can be safely fabricated when needed and made useful in various disciplines.
spectral image acquisition, X-ray, radiology, photon-counting computed tomography, microscopy, hyperspectral imaging
The currently most advanced spectral imaging technique is based on single photon-counting detectors. Such detectors typically require precise timing measurements and corresponding applications strongly benefit from fast data acquisition electronics.