Quantum sensing is an overall term that encompasses techniques and methods that use quantum mechanical phenomena to make precise measurements of physical quantities. Quantum mechanical states and effects such as quantum superposition, quantum interference, and quantum coherence are used to improve measurement accuracy beyond the limits of classical sensors.
In quantum sensing, solid-state or even photonic quantum sources are being developed to enable quantum-based measurements. Remarkable progress has been made in this field in recent years.
The article on quantum sensor applications for our products is intended to give visitors to our website who are interested in such topics a little insight. We ourselves are primarily concerned with the data acquisition requirements of our customers and are not active in the telecommunications industry or in fiber optic technology. The following content is therefore not to be understood as a scientific treatise, but also reflects subjective impressions.
How it works - the basic principle:
The building blocks for quantum mechanical operations and applications are called quantum dots. These are nanoscale regions (e.g., in a semiconductor material, a metal, or in organic molecules) that exhibit quantum mechanical properties due to their tiny size and special structure. The energy of the charge carriers in a quantum dot no longer takes on continuous values, but discrete values. The spectrum of a quantum dot ensemble can be represented as a Gaussian curve since different size classes of quantum dots emit at slightly different wavelengths. Quantum dots and the combination of several quantum dots (so-called quantum dot ensembles) can be produced in various processes depending on the application.
- idealized free-standing quantum dot, creator: Alexander Kleinsorge, image rights: public domain, image has been taken from Wikimedia Commons and reformatted to webP.
- View of a nitrogen-vacancy center: via Wikimedia Commons, image rights: public domain, image has been taken from Wikimedia Commons and reformatted to webP.
- single-atom trap: by courtesy of Dr. David Nadlinger, University of Oxford, taken from the article "Scientists set traps for atoms with single-particle precision" and reformatted to webP.
- compact linear ion trap: by courtesy of Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, image has been taken from the article "ion traps for quantum simulations, quantum computers and metrology" and reformatted to webP.
- photon-based detectors: by courtesy of Excelitas Technologies, image has been taken from this product website and reformatted to webP.
- nanowire arrays in conjunction with graphene: image rights: public domain, image has been taken from Wikimedia Commons via the article "Photocurrent in Bismuth Junctions with Graphene" and reformatted to webP.
- pairwise tunneling of electron pairs in a SQUID: by courtesy of Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, image has been taken from the article "Quantum magnetic-field sensors" and reformatted to webP.
- quantum Hall effect sensor: by courtesy of Amer Ali from the manufacturer graphensic and reformatted to webP.
- quantum based initial sensor: via Wikimedia Commons, Quantum Accelerometer Triad – QuAT © iXAtom / Exail / LP2NS. Templier and al, Science Advances (2022) / DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.add3854, reformatted to webP.
- future gravity mapping: image rights: public domain, image has been taken from Wikimedia Commons and reformatted to webP, creator is Stray et al. 2022 Nature DOI: 10.1038/s41586-021-04315-3
Author: Uwe Thomaschky