The xTDC4-PCIe is based on a classic common-start architecture yielding high data throughput. In a common-start scenario, the arrival times of pulses on the "stop"-inputs are measured relative to a signal on the "start"-input. The xTDC4-PCIe is ideally suited for a multitude of time-of-flight applications such as TOF mass spectrometry (TOF-MS), time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC), and LIDAR.
The xTDC4-PCIe's four-stop channels allow, for example, to use segmented detectors or measure pulses from a single detector channel at multiple thresholds to obtain rudimentary pulse height information. Such features are beneficial in many TOF-MS applications and LIDAR light detection and ranging. Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopes (FLIM) benefit strongly from the high timing resolution of the xTDC4-PCIe.
The integration of an xTC4-PCIe in applications your data acquisition application is easy! The board provides a stream of simple data structures as a ring buffer, containing a list of relative time stamps for all stop events.
The decay time of an electronically excited fluorophore is typically in the range of a few nanoseconds. In fluorescence lifetime imaging the exponential decay of a sample is determined requiring a timing resolution in the picosecond regime. Our sophisticated TDC and ADC solutions master this job with excellence.
LIDAR Systems emit ultraviolet, visible, or near-infrared light to image objects and measuring the time-of-flight (TOF) of reflected photons. Such systems are used for object detection and tracking in many different fields, ranging from archaeology to agriculture, autonomous vehicles, and robots, etc. The high timing resolution of cronologic ADCs and TDCs is a key to reaching the highest ranging accuracy and our devices’ high data throughput allows for targeting even complex measurement scenarios.
The position-readout of MCPs via a delay-line detector (DLD) is today’s best choice in the case of single-particle detection. Delay line detectors have excellent signal-to-noise properties, depict superior imaging dynamics, and, in addition, have a high time resolution. Modern delay-line detectors are furthermore multiple-hit-capable. Our TDCs are perfect companions for the readout of these detectors.
In many TOFMS units, cronologic TDCs are used to measure precisely the arrival of single ions. From the arrival time, the ion’s time-of-flight is deduced, from which the mass-to-charge ratio of the detected particle can be determined. A crucial factor for a successful measurement is the extremely low cycle-to-cycle jitter of our TDCs and their very low multiple hit detection dead time.
In phase measurements, the phase of an incident signal is compared to the phase of a device's response signal. With increasing frequency, such phase shift measurements become more challenging. cronologic TDCs provide many features which help to address this difficult task.
Whether in astrophysics, materials science, quantum information science, quantum encryption, medical imaging, DNA sequencing, or in fiber-optic communication: Single-photon detectors (SPD) provide a timing signal from which, for example, fluorescence lifetimes of excited matter can be deduced (FLIM). This is the perfect job for our TDCs and in some applications already our "entry-level"-device can be employed.
Quantum key distribution (QKD) enables the tap-proof encryption of data by exploiting the quantum properties of light. For transmission of encrypted data single-photon sources (SPS) can be used for optimal performance. Our fast TDCs facilitate the development of single-photon counting receiver modules which convert single-photon detection events into streams of time-tags - synchronized to the excitation-laser source.